- Page 1 to 10
- Page 11 to 20
- Page 21 to 26
The study determines rates of sedimentation and estimates the useful life of Dal-Nagin lake situated in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir using radiometric techniques. In spite of various ecological problems the lake is the largest freshwater lake in India. It has four major sub-basins viz., Hazratbal, Bod Dal, Garibal and Nagin. The lake is fraught with the problem of growth of underwater weeds and increasing rate of sedimentation.
The report presents a study of hypothetical failure of Myntdu Leska dam in the southern part of Meghalaya near the international Indo-Bangladesh border. The maximum water level attained by the dam break flood in the river downstream of dam has been calculated and ascertained for extent of submergence of the area.
Furthermore, the dam break flood wave characteristics at four different sections downstream of the dam have been determined for different failure characteristics. The sensitivity studies of the various parameters have also been done to know their effect over the movement of dam break flood wave.
The study deals with the development of an operation policy for the Tawa dam. It adopts rule-curve based policy for conservation regulation of the dam developed for three levels viz. upper rule level, middle rule level (critical for irrigation) and lower rule level (critical for water supply and upstream use). The generated simulation model developed by the Water Resources System Group at the National Institute of Hydrology is used to simulate the system operation and to refine the rule curves.
The study deals with flood plain mapping in a part of Yamuna basin between Gangoh and New Delhi. A flood is a markedly high stage of flow in a river and may inundate adjoining lands, which is called the floodplain of a river. So, floodplain is land inundated by a flood of given frequency. Alternately it is also defined as flat land between valley walls.
In this study, HEC 2 programme has been implemented on river Digaru to compute flow regime or the water surface profile for various discharge conditions. In this reach, two bridges have been considered to compute water surface elevations, critical water surface elevations, energy grade elevations & slope, velocity in the channel, flow area, top width and Froude Number.
The report presents the groundwater balance for the Southern Channel command area of the Pennar delta canal system as a part of the conjunctive use studies in the area.
The study deals with dam break analysis of Barna dam located in the state of Madhya Pradesh carried out using the popular National Weather Service Dam Break Flood Forecasting (NWS DAMBRK) model to assess the likely maximum flood discharge and elevation to be attained in Bareli township, 22 km downstream of the dam.
The study deals with flow computation in Saptamukhi river estuary in Sunderbans delta of West Bengal using finite element method. Complex interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes are present in coastal areas. Water circulation is one of the most important factors controlling these processes. The study of the real hydrodynamic regime and proper management of estuaries, lagoons and coastal regions due to high tides, peak flows erosion, sedimentation and pollutant load discharges is vital.
The report presents flood plain mapping of Phulbari area within the flood plains of Brahmaputra basin in the States of Assam and Meghalaya using satellite data. Flood is a natural calamity in which most parts of the north-eastern region are ravaged. Management of the problem in these disastrous flood affected areas often requires flood plain mapping for protection and resource development. This has mostly being done in real time on the basis of time consuming and often hazardous ground based surveys.
The report deals with estimation of evaporation losses from water surface in Tawa reservoir in Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh. The study is third in the series of evaporation studies to assess the adaptability of different methods for estimation of evaporation from free water surfaces in semi-arid areas. The estimates of evaporation from free water surface obtained by four methods namely Penman, Kohler, Van Bavel and Morton are compared with observed pan values on monthly, seasonal and annual basis.
The report deals with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based rainfall-runoff modeling using Topography Model (TOPMODEL) for the Hemavathy catchment of Cauvery basin in Western Ghats of Karnataka. The TOPMODEL is a variable contribution area model in which the predominant factors determining the formation of runoff are represented by the topography of the basin and a negative exponential law linking the transmissivity of the soil with the vertical distance from the ground level.
The study deals with the analysis of surface and groundwater flow process in Dakshina Kannada district in Western Ghats of Karnataka. The area receives over 4000 mm rainfall annually but is still faced with acute shortage of freshwater during summer months. The study attempts to identify the surface and sub-surface flow process through geohydrological and geomorphological investigations in the Sithanadhi and Netravathi basins.
The report presents the hydrologic information and news available from print media and various government agencies mostly for the year 1999-2000 compiled problem-wise and basin-wise for the whole country.
The study attempted to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration from minimum weather data of Tavanur, Kerala and resulted in an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which makes use of average temperature data to estimate the actual evapotranspiration. The effectiveness of this model was evaluated using various statistical indices. The results of this model were compared with various existing techniques. The analysis led to the conclusion that the ANN models were performing better than all existing techniques for computing the actual evapotranspiration. However, the study was based on a single season lysimeter data and more research work may be required to reinforce this conclusion.
The study deals with identification of water quality monitoring sites on Kshipra river of Ujjain. The location of permanent sampling station is probably the most critical factor in a monitoring network which collects water quality data. If the samples collected are not representative of the water mass, the frequency of samplings as well as the mode of data interpretation and presentation become inconsequential.
The report presents the hydrologic soil classification of Dudhnai sub-basin based on regional information collected from various agencies supplemented by field and laboratory experiments on the soil samples collected from time to time. As required by various soil classification systems, soil properties together with other information have been studied and grouped into different classes as a reference base for future hydrological studies of the basin.
The report presents infiltration studies of the year 1996-97 for the Bargi Left Bank Canal Command area of Narsinghpur district of Madhya Pradesh. Infiltration studies are mainly addressed to a variety of applications for managing water resources. The design of methods for estimation of flood mitigation and erosion control is often based on estimates of peak discharge derived from prediction of infiltration rate. Water conservation procedures require computation of cumulative infiltration to produce estimates of runoff yield.
In this report, an application of kriging technique is presented for interpolation of groundwater levels in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh. Groundwater management is important to meet the increasing demand for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Various management measures need to know the spatial and temporal behavior of groundwater. Most of the groundwater models require the inputs to be available on a grid pattern. However in the field, these parameters are generally measured at random points. However, interpolation of parameters at the grid nodes is a prerequisite for using this data in groundwater modeling.
The report deals with groundwater table and hydrochemistry of the Kakinada coastal aquifer in East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh.
The report presents a hydrochemical study of the groundwater of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh carried out during 1996 to examine the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes. Under the study, thirty-five water samples representing the shallow groundwater of the region were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the month of June and November 1996 respectively.
In this report, the suitability of groundwater of the Doon valley, Dehradun has been demonstrated on the basis of standards prescribed by BIS and WHO. The groundwater quality of the valley has been studied during 1996 to examine the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purposes. Twelve water samples representing the shallow groundwater of the valley were collected during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various constituents, viz. pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
The report attempts to identify sampling sites for water quality monitoring in Narmada basin. The assessment of water quality conditions over a wide area with respect to time and space requires the monitoring of activities to be carried out in a network. The location of a permanent sampling station is probably the most critical factor in a monitoring network which collects water quality data. If the samples collected are not representative of the water mass, the frequency of sampling as well as the mode of data interpretation and presentation becomes inconsequential.
The report presents waterlogged area mapping and hydrological data analysis of Mokama tal area of Bihar. The drainage problems of the agriculture land use are basically associated with the stagnation of runoff and the rise of the water table. Generally, the runoff stagnation is a result of intense rain, which produces excessive runoff for which the existing drainage capacity is not adequate or outlet conditions are not favorable. The rise of water table beyond a critical limit or surface ponding results in waterlogging conditions.
The report deals with determination of SCS runoff Curve Number and land use changes for Hamidnagar sub-basin of Punpun basin. The design of any hydraulic structure calls for the estimation of runoff. The Soil Conservation Services model, developed by USDA, computes direct runoff through an empirical equation that requires the rainfall and watershed coefficient as inputs. The watershed coefficient is called the Curve Number (CN), which represents the runoff potential of the land cover-soil complex.
The report reviews compilation of information about arsenic pollution in groundwater experienced by many countries in the world and in particular the eight districts of West Bengal. The science of arsenic pollution and the state of art of arsenic removal have been discussed and some immediate remedial measures suggested.
The study deals with estimation of surface soil properties in Malaprabha command area. It can be broadly concluded that generalization of soil properties for an area is difficult since the soil and land use type varies drastically from one point to another in a short distance. It is only possible to have an average value for a particular type of soil. Also, it can be seen from the results that the percentage of silt-clay plays an important role in shaping the hydraulic properties of a soil.
The report presents a study of the Rakaskop tank, which caters to the drinking and domestic water purposes of the Belgaum city of Karnataka. In recent past, it has been observed that the amount of water stored during the monsoon season is not sufficient for domestic purposes in the city throughout the year. The study estimates the dependable yield of the tank and also the evaporation from the tank.
The report presents the study on the physio-chemical properties of soil for Basantar catchment in Jammu and Kashmir. Soil physio-chemical properties are basic inputs for any hydrological modeling and are important for efficient management of irrigated agriculture. The most important soil properties influencing irrigation are its infiltration characteristics and water holding capacity. Other soil properties such as soil texture, soil structure, capillary conductivity, soil profile conditions, and depth of water table are also given consideration in the management of irrigation water.
The report deals with the modeling of the Cochin estuary along Kerala coast using two- dimensional finite element model. The basic equations for modeling of any surface water problems are the three dimensional hydrodynamic equations arising from consideration of mass and momentum conservation. In vertically well mixed shallow water bodies, the horizontal components of flow quantities are normally much more significant than vertical components.
In this study, a two layered finite difference method has been generated for groundwater flow analysis of Ghataprabha sub-basin of Krishna river basin. The conceptual model has been calibrated for steady state conditions and validated for both steady state and transient conditions through USGS, 3D Finite Difference Code and MODFLOW. Various applications were tried out on the calibrated model, like River-Drain influencing the aquifer, reasons for waterlogging and drying out of wells and well design strategies.
In this report, groundwater quality scenarios of the worst affected region of Nargund-Navalgund area of Malaprabha command in Dharwar, Karnataka have been simulated through a three dimensional finite difference code SWIFT III. Mathematical modeling of the groundwater quality was done on a local rather than a larger regional scale.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the soil erosion rate in Malaprabha representative basin by using WEPP model and Universal Soil Loss Equation. Soil erosion and sedimentation are the two important natural processes, which need immediate attention from the scientific community. Two major types of erosion are geological erosion and erosion from human or animal activities.
In this study, an attempt has been made to study the characteristics of short interval rainfall data of the Punpun river basin lying in Bihar-Jharkhand, which has been identified as the representative basin for the NIH- Centre for Flood Management Studies, Patna. The estimation of flood peaks for small catchments is required for water resources planning, flood forecasting, design of various drainage systems, flood control and design of hydraulic structures.
The report deals with water conservation measures in the arid and semi arid area of the hard rock region viz Somadevarahalli watershed (Bijapur taluka) and Herehalla watershed (Hangund taluka) of the Bijapur district of Karnataka. Soil and water, the most valuable natural resources for farming, are not preserved in-situ and conserved for future use owing to the inadequacies and ineffectiveness of the existing structures and measures. In view of this, to assess the overall situation of water resources for the development and management of watersheds, the annual and monthly rainfall and its distribution over the study area, and the status of groundwater occurrence has been analyzed.
In this study, uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the parameters of the mathematical model developed at the National Institute of Hydrology for estimation of the Clark model parameters using the geomorphological characteristics of an ungauged catchment. The model has been applied for simulation of direct surface runoff (DSRO) hydrographs of the catchment defined by bridge number 807 of the Lower Godavari sub-zone 3 (f).
The report presents the analysis of surface runoff and baseflow carried out for the Ariyanayakipuram anicut, Tambarapani basin, Tamil Nadu for a period of 13 years (1983-95). The hydrological behavior of catchments is a very complex phenomenon and is controlled by a large number of climatic and physiographic factors that vary in time and space. The analysis shows that the contribution of baseflow at Ariyanayakipuram anicut was observed to be more.
The report on Suddagedda basin, a representative basin of the east flowing rivers of medium sized basins in the east coast of India, presents the outcomes of the infiltration tests carried out using Double Ring Infiltrometer. The basin soil is mainly grouped into three types viz clay loams to clay, sandy loams and forest & loamy skeletal. A total of twenty-eight infiltration tests have been conducted using double ring infiltrometers.
The report presents a hydrologic simulation model, HYSIM for modeling the daily flows of the Brahmani river at Rengali reservoir in Orissa. Considering the large catchment area of 25,250 sqkm at Rengali reservoir, for modeling purposes the basin has been divided into two sub-basins viz, Upper Sub-basin and Lower Sub-basin. The Upper Sub-basin having a catchment area of 16,900 sqkm up to Bolani gauging site is treated as a nominal sub-basin since the daily flows from this sub-basin as recorded at Bolani gauging site are available.
The report deals with hydrological soil classification in Sher-Umar river doab in Narmada basin. The study and classification of soil has in the past been undertaken by engineers and agriculturists who have confined themselves to those soil properties and materials in which they had a special interest. The soils have also been studied by geologists, but the geological description of an area does not include the information required by soil scientists. The classification designed by soil users have tended to be of limited value to others as they were designed to serve a specific and limited purpose.
The report presents a methodology for planning of crop and water management practices using weekly rainfall data.
In the study, the methodology developed at the National Institute of Hydrology to relate Clark model parameters to geomorphological characteristics has been used to develop unit hydrograph for two hard rock catchments, Barchi nala and Malaprabha up to Khanapur. This model has already been successfully implemented for simulation of flood events in small catchments of Upper Narmada and Kolar sub-basin of Narmada river as well as the Tapi sub-zone.
The report presents an estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield for the Karso catchment of Barakar basin in Jharkhand using ANSWERS model.
The present study aims to estimate the soil moisture movement and recharge to groundwater in Saharanpur due to monsoon rains through the unsaturated porous media in case of cultivated and uncultivated fields. Artificial radioisotope was injected at two uncultivated and five cultivated sites before the onset of monsoon and soil samples were collected from the injection points after the rainy season.
The report presents a hydrogeological and geochemical study of groundwater flow for the Suddagedda basin of Andhra Pradesh. Planning of water resources development projects calls for an understanding and analysis of the hydrological characteristics of the region. The hydrogeology and geochemistry of the basin needs to be investigated particularly for a groundwater resources development project.
The report discusses the application of deterministic and stochastic approaches in daily rainfall-runoff modeling. The structure of a simple hydrologic water balance type conceptual model of daily time scale is discussed and tested on three catchments of India. Further, the deviations of historic and computed runoff series obtained by using the model, which indicate the error in the fitting of model, is analyzed and used to improve the predicted flows.
The report presents a seasonal rainfall-runoff model developed for the Saurashtra region as well as parts of Narmada river basin. The successful planning and implementation of water resources projects require reliable data on volumetric runoff. It is not feasible to have discharge stations in all the river basins of interest given resource constraints. Therefore, regional rainfall-runoff models are preferred. The utility of such models can be improved if rainfall-runoff models for different regions are developed using data specific to the regions.
The report presents the evaluation of water supply system of Kakinada town in Andhra Pradesh. The neglect of hydrology of a region, while undertaking planning and development works in an urban environment, has serious consequences, the most notable being non-availability of enough potable drinking water to citizens. Water budget studies can be undertaken with all the available records to improve the functioning of such systems and to identify additional alternate resources.
The report looks at groundwater quality and presents the results of the chemical analysis of groundwater samples from openwells & borewells of Belgaum district. The study broadly covers these aspects - (i) groundwater quality evaluation of the district (ii) identification of groundwater quality problems in various parts of district (iii) classification of groundwater, and (iv) application of DRASTIC model for assessing the vulnerability to groundwater pollution.
In the present study, surface and groundwater quality monitoring has been undertaken in parts of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir in order to evaluate its quality for domestic and agricultural purposes. Water sources are polluted by four kinds of substances: traditional organic waste, waste generated from industrial processes, chemical agents of fertilizers & pesticides used for crop production and silt from degraded catchment.
The report attempts to analyze the shallow groundwater table and water quality data for about 20 years pertaining to the Krishna delta. The trend analysis of groundwater level data of shallow wells indicates that in the upper part of the delta, the groundwater table moved up during the period 1979 to 1999. This may be due to the dense canal network in the delta and increase in irrigated area over a period of time.
The report presents a sedimentation study of the Mansar lake in Udhampur district situated about 55 kms east of Jammu at an elevation of 666 m above mean sea level in the Siwalik terrain. The lake surface area is 0.59 sqkm whereas the lake basin area is 1.67 sqkm. The maximum depth of lake is 38.25 m. The lake has been developed as a tourist spot of the region owing to its natural beauty. The water is also being used for drinking and irrigation purposes.
The report deals with the applicability of remote sensing techniques to monitor changes in land-use and water spread area for the Yelbarga and Kustagi talukas of Koppal district in Karnataka. Information on the rate and kind of changes in land and water resources is essential for planning, management and regularizing the use of such resources.
The report deals with the artificial recharging of an unconfined aquifer with injection well in the Hukkeri taluka in Ghataprabha sub-basin of Krishna river. The Ghataprabha sub-basin of Krishna like most river basins of peninsular India has been facing groundwater development problems varying in nature and severity. It has got a wide spectrum of issues such as cases of failure of wells at several places on the one hand, while some areas becoming unfertile due to waterlogging.
In the present study, watershed prioritization of the catchment immediately upstream of the Ukai reservoir has been carried out using remote sensing technique. The Watershed Response Model (WRM) has been used for this purpose. This model utilizes the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Brightness Index (SBI), the two important parameters responsible for soil erosion.
The report deals with a hypothetical dam-failure study using DAMBRK model, carried out for simulation of flood wave downstream of the Ghodadoha project in Orissa. Ghodadoha is a rock-filled earthen dam located in one of the tributaries of the Rushikuliya river of Orissa.
The research study attempts to develop a rainfall-runoff model using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique for the Baitarni river in Orissa. A detailed review of the research work in the area of interest revealed that the approach of neural computations was very effective in developing the required model, due to its various advantages. Accordingly, three candidate models based on ANN architecture were developed for the study area, to represent rainfall-runoff transformation.
In the study, raingauge network design has been developed for the Pagladiya basin of Brahmaputra river in Nalbari, Assam and Bhutan. Precipitation is the most basic data required for any water resources study and the estimation of the number & location of raingauge stations that provide adequate information regarding rainfall falling over the catchment is referred to as network design. A raingauge network is intended to serve general as well as specific purposes such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood forecasting, irrigation and flood control.
The study attempts to determine the useful life of the Bargi reservoir and assesses the sedimentation rate in it using satellite data. Periodical surveys are essential to provide a correct understanding of the sedimentation process going on in a reservoir, so that remedial measures can be undertaken well in advance and reservoir operation schedule planned for optimum utilization of water.
The study attempts to develop a conjunctive use model involving judicious use of surface and groundwater for the Habibpur region of Gandak command in Bihar. The area is characterized by insufficient surface water during rabi and summer seasons and excess surface water in the kharif season.
The report deals with the field testing of weighing rain gauge. Reliable and accurate measurement of rainfall is an essential requirement in hydrological studies.
The report emphasizes the necessity of Computer Aided Learning and presents a Learning Package on Hydrology covering various important elements of hydrology including the definitions and figures in a simple and straight forward language
In this study, a model has been developed considering surface flow component and subsurface flow component along with the evapotranspiration from the crop as the sink term for the Lokapavani area of KR Sagar command of Karnataka. The surface flow component is represented using one-dimensional St-Venant equations and the subsurface flow component is represented using one-dimensional Richards equation with the sink term for the evapotranspiration from crop.
The report attempts asymptomatic estimation of runoff curve number for small hard rock watersheds from rainfall-runoff data. One of the major activities in Applied Hydrology is the estimation of storm event runoff from ungauged small watersheds. Such estimates are often required in the design of small hydraulic structures and in formulation of watershed management strategies.
The report attempts to do a comparison of single and multiple flow direction algorithms for computing topographic parameters in TOPMODEL. Topography is an important factor that influences the physical phenomenon of rainfall-runoff. Undeniably, it plays a primary role in the gravity drainage within a basin. In the last decade, ever-developing computer techniques associated with the greater availability of terrain data in digital form has favored the production of physically based models, which have spatial variability of topography built into their structure.
The report deals with the estimation of geomorphology parameters for small catchments using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Stream channel morphology is literally the study of stream channel form and structure, but generally it is taken to mean their form and structures regarded as a whole or their collective morphology features. Systematic analysis of morphometry of any drainage basin and its stream system is of great importance in understanding the hydrological behavior of the basin.
The report presents the seasonal mapping of water bodies along the Andhra coast using satellite data to analyze the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon variations in the reservoirs. Water resources development be it construction of reservoir, anicut or irrigation canal, calls for mapping of the various water bodies to throw light on its behavior in different seasons in order to plan a judicious water management scheme.
Remote sensing methods are considered to be more appropriate than conventional methods for collection of such information owing to their capability to provide broad synoptic and repetitive coverage of the area in a multi-spectral mode.
The study focuses attention on the use of inverse modeling technique for estimation of rainfall-recharge in a coastal aquifer. MODINV (Modular Inverse Model), which is software for parameter optimization of 3-D groundwater flow model, MODFLOW is applied to the Central Godavari delta in Andhra Pradesh to estimate the distributed rainfall-recharge during monsoon season.
In this report an attempt has been made to estimate the mean monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) for the Krishnai Irrigation Project in Assam. To undertake this analysis, the mean monthly climatological and physiographical data for the period of 1986 to 1994 has been collected from the Meteorological Department, Borjhar, Assam.
The report deals with the transportation behavior of lindane, a pesticide used commonly in the agricultural and public health sectors in India, through sandy and loamy soils. The contamination of groundwater by pesticides is a worldwide problem because of their tissue degradation and carcinogenic nature. They are bio-accumulative and relatively stable and therefore, require close monitoring.
The pesticides used for agricultural, forestry and domestic activities leach into the groundwater and therefore, it is very important to study their transportation behavior in different types of soil media.
The study deals with the distribution of heavy metals on sediments under different flow conditions in the river Hindon. The river is subjected to varying degree of pollution caused by numerous untreated waste outfalls of municipal and industrial effluents.
The report deals with development of reaeration coefficient for Indian condition using mathematical approach and field studies. Of the various constituents, which determine the quality of water, Dissolved Oxygen is the most important parameter indicating the health of a stream. There is a continual replenishment (reaeration) or utilization (deoxygenated) of Dissolved Oxygen due to inflow of waste load at different points in the stream. When a waste load is discharged into a flowing stream, it is mainly subjected to advection, dispersion and reaction kinetics. Waste Load Allocation (WLA) studies provide information to assist in making effective decisions on levels of treatment required for a source or sources of pollutant loads.
The report attempts drought characterization in arid and semi-arid climatic regions of India. Drought frequency and intensity are a function of the dimensionless climatic parameter derived as a ratio of mean annual potential evapotranspiration to mean annual precipitation (Ep/Pa).
The report presents a study on the Sagar lake wherein the various water balance components like inputs and outputs have been quantified to visualize the influence of these parameters on the storage changes. Lakes play an important role in shaping the hydrological, ecological and environmental balance of the region by developing the flora, fauna and habitation of the aquatic biota. Like other lakes, Sagar lake too faces manifold problems of siltation and deterioration of water quality, thus threatening its survival.
The report presents an inventory of water bodies in the State of Jammu & Kashmir in the Western Himalayan region prepared using satellite data of IRS-1A (standard FCC, scale 1:250000) for 1988/ 99 and digital data of IRS-1C for 1998. Also, presented is a database developed with the help of Survey of India (SoI) topographic maps, which includes name and type of the water body, nearest place, district, river basin, geographical coordinates and elevation.
The report presents the status of the sediment studies carried out in the lower as well as higher altitude region of the Garhwal Himalayas. The processes associated with sediment production in the mountainous region have been described with an emphasis on the glaciarized region. Suspended sediment concentration and load observed in the Dokraini glacier melt stream near its snout has been computed.
In this study, regional flood frequency relationships have been developed using L-moments for South Bihar, in the alluvial plains of Indo-Gangetic basin and Kaimur-Chhotanagpur Santhal Pargana plateau. The annual maximum peak flood data of twenty-two gauging sites whose catchment areas vary from 11.7 to 3171 sqkm have been used. The mean annual peak floods of these sites vary from 29.15 cumec to 1293.2 cumec. Comparative regional flood frequency analysis studies have been carried out using some of the commonly used frequency distributions viz Extreme Value (EV1), General Extreme Value (GEV), Normal, Log Pareto (GPA) and Wakeby based on L-moments approach.
In this study, the mathematical model developed at the National Institute of Hydrology for estimation of the Clark model parameters using the geomorphological characteristics of an ungauged basin has been applied for simulation of the direct surface runoff (DSRO) hydrographs of the Ajay basin up to the Sarath gauging site of South Bihar.
In this study, a two dimensional numerical model in the vertical plane for simulating miscible transport of saltwater in a coastal aquifer has been developed. In order to simulate the variable density flow, the governing partial differential equation of flow and solute transport has been written in terms of pressure and concentration respectively.
The Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS-CN) method presented in this report has been applied to two large catchments in sub-humid regions of India and its performance evaluated. The variation of the curve number is examined and discussed and a critical evaluation of the employment of the single linear reservoir routing technique and linear regression technique presented.
This report is a compilation of the status of natural resources as well as of the hydrological problems & constraints being faced in the Kandi belt of Jammu region of Jammu & Kashmir. Suitable actions and methods are recommended to tackle these problems in the study area.
This status report on "Hydrology of Arid Regions in India" compiles the scattered information on the subject. It is divided into nearly fourteen categories, covering sections like geology, rainfall, desertification of arid lands, position of groundwater in arid & semi-arid regions and dune landforms.
The report attempts to provide solutions to the twin problems of waterlogging and salinity in the irrigated command area through various drainage or traditional reclamation measures viz controlling the intensity of irrigation, providing drainage system, lining, improving natural drainage, preventing seepage or adopting modern technology for application of water.
The report, a part of the regular work programme of the Flood Studies Division of the National Institute of Hydrology presents a literature review on modeling debris flow. Occurrence of debris flows is a common natural phenomenon and denotes the rapid flow of debris with sufficient water to disperse grains uniformly throughout the entire depth. Dam break flows, landslides and flows in a mountainous terrain are some of the examples.
In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a regional flood formula using L-moments for the north Brahmaputra river system. The annual maximum peak flood data of twelve gauging sites of the north bank tributaries of the river have been considered. The screening of the data has been carried out for assessing the suitability of the data for regional flood frequency analysis by computing the Discordancy Measure (Di) in terms of L-moments. Also, homogeneity of the region has been tested using the L-moment based heterogeneity measure, H.
The study evaluates the applicability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in rainfall-runoff process modeling for the Ajay river basin, Jharkhand to predict the 6-hour ahead runoff at Sarath. Initially three flood events were considered for training, to find out the weights between different layers of the network. The back propagation algorithm has been used for optimization of weights. The developed ANN was validated for rest of the flood events.
In the present study, two different Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were developed for Dharoi reservoir, Gujarat, one for flood control operation and another for conservation operation. In recent years, ANNs are increasingly being used to predict water resources variables particularly in the operation of reservoirs, the most important elements of complex water resources systems, constructed for spatial and temporal distribution of water.
The report presents guidelines for hydrological investigations in a small watershed. A watershed is an individual entity, and is a naturally occurring unit of the landscape, which contains a complex array of interlinked and interdependent resources and activities irrespective of political boundaries. In addition, it is logical unit having readily identifiable boundaries and characteristics of water movement, which helps in coordinated planning and management
The report deals with expert systems for unit hydrograph analysis, an emerging technology, which may in years to come, revolutionize professional activities in the field of surface water analysis and modeling. The literature review on the topic revealed the potential of application of expert system for unit hydrograph analysis. A prototype expert system has been developed for the selection of the most appropriate model for unit hydrograph derivation of a given catchment.
The report presents development of a sensor system capable of automated measurement of soil-water status, using the four-electrode resistivity (VES) method, in a soil profile. In this method, by changing the separation between two electrodes (metallic rods) placed at the ground surface without digging any holes, the variation in moisture content in the sub-surface soil profile can be monitored.
The study attempts to develop a relationship between glacier melt runoff and meteorological parameters for the Dokriani glacier in Garhwal Himalayas. The discharge auto-correlation, correlation between discharge & temperature and between discharge & rainfall has been computed for each month of the summer season and for the melt season as a whole for different years.
The study provides an analysis of groundwater quality to identify probable pollution or contamination in coastal aquifers of Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh. Sampling surveys have been conducted in the months of May 99, August 99 and November 99 and about 186 water samples were collected from shallow wells, filter points, canal water and rainwater. The spatial and temporal variations of water quality parameters are presented in the report.
The report presents a sedimentation study in which sedimentation rate and volume have been determined using remote sensing data in the Ukai reservoir constructed across the Tapti River in Gujarat.
The report deals with software developed by the National Institute of Hydrology with the purpose of preparation of hydrological data book in a form most valuable to the users. A menu driven, user friendly software has been developed to handle all types of hydrological and meteorological data.
The report presents a systematic procedure for the computation of evaporation from lakes. Water balance of a lake depends upon the relative importance of various inputs and outputs to and from the lake. In Indian conditions, evaporation loss constitutes one of the major outputs from a lake and as such, the water regime of a lake and yield are influenced by it. In order to conserve and use the water, there is an urgent need for a first hand reasonable accurate estimate of its water balance.
The report provides an account of the findings of water quality studies of Lake Nainital and surroundings. Even though quite a few water quality investigations have been conducted by other researchers, they were more focused on biological aspects and overlooked the hydrological aspects. Further, not all of the earlier studies on Nainital incorporated the groundwater quality aspects, which are essential to establish the background values that can be ascribed to the geology of the region. Only after establishing these, the pollution levels can be assessed.
The report presents the effect of non hydrostatic pressure distribution on dam break flood wave movement. Dam break flood moves with non-hydrostatic pressure distribution in the vertical direction. However, almost all the mathematical models for dam break flows use Saint-Venant equation, which presume hydrostatic pressure in the vertical direction. In this report, an attempt has been made to use Boussinesq equations in the mathematical model.
In this study, Clark’s model has been used for derivation of one-hour unit hydrograph for a catchment. The design flood estimate has been obtained using the calibrated parameters of the Clark model together with the time-area diagram corresponding to a 48-hour design storm, which has been temporally distributed and critically sequenced as a single bell, giving due consideration to the ordinates of the unit hydrograph.
The report examines the effect of periodicity in the rainfall records on the water availability of Damanganga basin in Nasik and Thane districts of Maharashtra. Based on the rainfall-runoff record of a shorter period, runoff series for a longer period is developed using a water balance model. The per cent deviation in water availability estimations computed using short term wet and dry records from the complete records is examined. The effect of length of time-series on the water availability estimates is also studied.
In this report, a mathematical model capable of computing the flow depth and discharge in each of the branched flows is developed using gradually varied flow equations. This model can handle three flow situations viz. temporary flow diversion, a cut-off channel and a single river island. Computational capability of the model is increased to handle irregular cross sections of a river.
In the present report a mathematical model has been developed for the study of stream aquifer interaction in multilayered system viz. a three-aquifer system, in which aquifers are separated by aquitards, considering varying stream-stage and vertical flow through aquitards. The model enables the computation of rates of recharge to the upper aquifer and exchanges of flow among aquifers along with the spatial and temporal distributions of piezometric heads in the aquifers.
The present study is in continuance with the earlier investigations made regarding the seepage from a surface water body in a multilayered aquifer system, wherein the influence of varying dimensions of a fractured-zone in a aquitard on the seepage from a source had been investigated. The objective is to examine the influence of a fractured-zone in a confining aquitard on the seepage from a surface water body. The issues covered include the influence of –
The location with respect to the source of a fracture in the aquitard
The position of the fractured aquitard at various depths in the aquifer system on the seepage from the source
The study aims to assess the impacts of various climate scenarios on the hydrological response of the high altitude Spiti river in the Himalayas. The climatic scenarios were constructed on the basis of simulations of the Hamburg coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model for the study region.
The report attempts to do a trace analysis of pesticides using gas chromatography technique. Pesticides are bio-accumulative and relatively stable, as well as toxic or carcinogenic, and therefore, require close monitoring. The identification and quantification of pesticides in different water bodies is a very important part of water analysis. The gas chromatography technique is considered appropriate, as most of the pesticides are volatile at the working temperature of gas chromatography. However, a pre-derivatization of a very few pesticides may be required prior to the analysis.
The report presents an original study of Cadmium adsorption based on experimental data. The effect of operating variables, like solution pH, sediment dose, contact time and particle size on the adsorption of cadmium ions on bed sediments of the highly polluted Kali river in western Uttar Pradesh has been studied.
The report gives an account of a feasibility study of rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions. A review of water harvesting systems is followed by a section wherein numerical solutions for surface flow equations are explained.
In this study, a two-dimensional overland flow model has been developed considering random roughness coefficients and irregular land surface for the analysis of surface flow component. The one-dimensional Richards equation for subsurface flow component has been used for calculating the infiltration from the pervious area.
The report presents the status of risk based hydrologic designs that have been reported in literature and based on these, identifies a computational procedure for developing hydrologic design bases for dams and spillways. Some illustrative examples are presented in order to demonstrate the impact of risk based analysis on current design practices.
This report describes the study of regional flood frequency analysis using peak flood series data of gauging stations of Krishna basin based on at site and regional data combined using the following methods: (a) Index-Flood method (b) PWM based EVI distribution (c) PWM based GEV distribution and (d) PWM based Wakeby distribution.
The report deals with the hydrological aspects of watershed development and describes watershed components and watershed models. It gives an account of the various watershed models in details including data requirement, input, output, various physical processes and governing equation. The suitability of a particular model to Indian condition is also highlighted in the report.
The report is a compilation of abstracts of hydrological literature from select national and international Journals for the period 1991-95. Though a sizeable number of Journals are published in the field of hydrology and water resources, scientists involved in different studies and projects find it difficult to go through all of them.
The report presents the hydrologic information and news available from print media and various government agencies mostly for the year 1996-97 compiled state-wise and problem-wise for the whole country.
In this study, the influence of a discontinuous aquitard on the seepage from a recharge source in a multilayered aquifer system, with the prescribed hydrogeological set-up, has been subjected to investigation.
The report is a compilation of abstracts and annotated bibliography of hydrological literature from select national and international Journals for the year 1996-97. Though a sizeable number of Journals are published in the field of hydrology and water resources, scientists involved in different studies and projects find it difficult to go through all of them.
This report is a compilation of the hydrological news in the print media in the country for the year 1997-98. The report is an attempt to put forth diverse hydrologic information and events reflecting the problems and indicate solutions for hydrologists, planners and water resource managers in particular. Five national newspapers like Hindustan Times, Indian Express and Hindu etc., have been referred to, for tracking the Indian hydrological events due to flood, drought, quality, demand supply and availability.
The study attempts to do flood inundation and flood plain feature mapping as well as undertake river planform measurements for a part of the river reach of Satluj. The river is a part of the Indus system and faces flood during monsoon months in spite of various flood control measures that have been adopted. The vast expanse of land adjoining the river course is inundated by large floods.
The report deals with the hydrological aspects of flood disaster management, a multi-disciplinary field that endeavors to enhance the total productivity of the flood plains wherein losses are only a part of it. There are climatological and part-climatological causes of flooding and basin conditions, channel conditions and network conditions intensify floods.
The report attempts to compile all the published works on the Sagar lake in one place. This includes brief description of the historical and the geographical background of the lake, details of water quality analysis carried out in various years, present position of the lake and various schemes proposed and implemented for the improvement of the condition of the lake.
The report is set in the context of the growing application of computers in the field of hydrology, and the consequent development of large number of softwares for hydrological and allied applications. The report is structured as a Directory and presents brief details about softwares for hydrological and general purpose application available with the National Institute of Hydrology.
The study undertakes hydrological land use mapping in Narmada basin from Jabalpur to Hoshangabad by using various methods right from empirical formulae to Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for design discharge computations and continuous runoff modeling. The SCS Curve Number method is used to derive an empirical relationship of the catchment hydrological variables and based on this the dimensional unit hydrograph is prepared and continuous runoff modeling done.
The report gives a reviewed summary of various developments in the field of artificial recharge of groundwater at national and international levels. Different methods of recharging have been discussed in detail with reference to their design criteria, application and economic feasibility. The report also provides the details of field application.
The study uses GIS techniques for spatial discretization of the Karso catchment into time-area segments to be used in numerical solutions of the governing differential equations for rainfall-runoff-erosion process. Various thematic layers such as soil, land use, slope, flow direction and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were generated for the catchment using various tools available in GIS. These thematic layers were further utilized to generate attribute information such as Manning’s n, USLE K and C parameters for use in the rainfall-runoff-soil erosion model.
The report presents regional flood frequency curves developed by fitting L-moment based GEV distribution to annual maximum peak flood data of small to medium sized catchments of the seven hydrometeorological sub-zones of zone 3 and combined zone 3 of India. The effect of regional heterogeneity is studied by comparing the growth factors of various sub-zones and combined zone 3. The flood frequency curves based on probability weighted moment (PWM) approach have been compared with the flood frequency curves based on L moment approach.
The study on aquifer response modeling was undertaken for the southern channel command area of the Pennar delta canal system in Andhra Pradesh to understand the potential and dependability of groundwater supplies in the study area so that limited surface waters could be allocated to other uses or areas.
The study, which is a part of the representative basin studies, attempts to do a morphometric analysis of the Suddagedda basin of Andhra Pradesh. The linear, areal and relief aspects pertaining to morphology are studied. In ungauged basins and basins with very little hydrological data, the study of geomorphologic characteristics is important as these can be related with the hydrological characteristics of the basin and thus provide a simple way to understand the hydrologic behavior of various basins.
The study uses Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to simulate the flow and erosion processes in Sallopat watershed of Mahi river basin in Banswara, Rajasthan. The WEPP model is a distributed, continuous, small agricultural watershed erosion model. It can simulate the effects of management practices and land use changes on the spatial and temporal variability of the erosion processes within a watershed system. The major features of this model are the ability to –
Delineate areas of detachment and deposition on a hill slope or along a channel reach
Account for the effects of management and land use changes on the erosion process
Account for the effects of backwater on detachment, transport and deposition processes within channels
The study develops a regional hydrological model for estimating flow characteristics at ungauged sites of Narmada basin using climatological, hydrological and morphological variables. The term low flow is broadly used to describe stream flows that are significantly below average or below normal flow levels.
The study attempts water quality monitoring of Mansar lake to detect the various water quality parameters. The lake water conditions were monitored by collecting water samples from different depths to determine the spatial and temporal variations.
The study attempts to understand the status of groundwater quality in Belgaum city. In groundwater assessment studies, evaluation of the quality of groundwater is as important as the quantity because the usability of groundwater available is determined by its chemical, physical and bacteriological properties.
The study attempts to develop an in-depth understanding of the behavior of open wells in the region through sensitivity analysis of the aquifer parameters and its method of pumping test design. The estimation of groundwater balance and flow paths requires appropriate aquifer parameters, representing the study domain.
The report deals with the results of a study on seasonal changes in groundwater hydrochemistry of Kakinada town of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 29 dug wells and 16 filter points were selected for assessing the hydrochemistry. The monthly groundwater levels measured form the wells indicated that they are different for wells located above and below the Mean Sea Level (MSL).
The study deals with the detection of trace elements – Cu, Co, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb along with pH and ORP in the groundwater of Guwahati and its adjacent areas. Toxicity of a metal depends on its concentration, which adversely affects any biological activity. Almost all the metals are toxic at higher concentrations, few in low concentrations and few others even in trace like As, Pb, Hg, Cd etc. The presence of such metals in groundwater is a subject of concern. Groundwater that contains higher amount of metals affects public health to a great extent when it is used for drinking and domestic purposes.
The study attempts to compile and evaluate the status of metal pollution assessment through aquatic sediments in rivers and lakes. The introduction of metallic pollutants into a river, whether it is natural (erosion from its drainage basin) or artificial (anthropogenic), can occur in dissolved or particulate form.
The study deals with adsorption of lead and zinc ions on the bed sediments of river Kali in western Uttar Pradesh. Adsorption is one of the most important processes in water quality control, which influences the transport of pollutants in aquatic environment.
In this report, a conceptual model is proposed and described for calculation of streamflow runoff arising from rainfall, snowmelt and glacier melt for the Himalayan basins. The simple structure of the model is designed keeping in view the sparse network, the availability of data and topography of the Himalayan basins. The model is based on the area-elevation characteristics of the watershed and utilizes the relationships describing the temperature lapse rates and orographic precipitation distribution.
The methods of pump test analysis reviewed in this report has been classified as traditional, computer based and new graphical. Quantitative data on hydraulic characteristics of aquifers including transmissivity and storativity are essential to the understanding and solution of aquifer problems and the proper evaluation and utilization of groundwater resources.
The report is an attempt to compile the procedures for systematic processing of rainfall data. The concepts of rainfall data processing have been discussed. It provides computer programs that are meant for processing and analysis of rainfall data collected from various sources. Different well documented computer programs, their description with input specifications and test input are given in the report.
The study looks at soil moisture movement and recharge to groundwater using nuclear methods like tritium tagging. It estimates the recharge to groundwater due to monsoon rain and irrigation through the unsaturated porous media in case of cultivated and uncultivated fields.
The study demonstrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based methodology for identification of sediment source areas and prediction of storm sediment yield for small watersheds. The Nagwa watershed in Bihar was discretized in to 50m grid cells using Integrated Land and Water Information Systems (ILWIS) GIS package, and unique drainage directions were obtained using GIS analysis. Also, a threshold channel network was generated from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the watershed. Actual observed drainage and generated drainage networks were superimposed and were found identical.
The study carries out sediment yield estimation for the Shakkar catchment of the Narmada river in Madhya Pradesh and successfully implements a methodology for prioritization using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and image processing on ERDAS and ILWIS software.
The study deals with the estimation of hydrological soil parameters of the doab between Sher, Umar river and Bargi left bank canal in Narsinghpur district of Madhya Pradesh. The soil properties determined are soil texture, soil moisture characteristic curves and saturated hydraulic conductivity.
The report presents the preliminary results of a hydrological study in Danda watershed, a small hilly watershed located in Tehri-Garhwal, representative of the mountainous sub-humid agro-ecological region in the western Himalayas.
In this study, a spatially distributed unit hydrograph was developed for the Kolar basin in Madhya Pradesh using Arc Info GIS package. The one-hour distributed hydrograph was determined for the basin using S hydrograph technique from the time-area diagram of the basin.
The report deals with the findings of a water quality study of Mansar lake in Udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir. The water samples from different locations at the surface and from three zones (viz, epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion) were collected and physico-analysis carried out.
The study attempts to do a space-time distribution of rainstorms associated with the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal over a period of 20 years from 1976 to 1996.
The magnitude of peak flood and shape of the flood hydrograph depends not only on the magnitude of the total storm rainfall but also on its distribution in space and time. Improvements of the accuracy and timeliness of hydrological forecasting would thus largely depend on the prediction of rainfall distribution in space and time.
In this study, groundwater quality monitoring and evaluation of Greater Guwahati is presented based on the physico-chemical characteristics of thirty samples collected on grid pattern. The various parameters analyzed include pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, Na+, K+, CA++, Mg++, NO3-, SO4--, Cl- and F-. The results were compared with water quality standards prescribed by BIS and WHO.
In this study, NASMO model, a rainfall-runoff method, which uses the SCS method to determine effective rainfall, the linear reservoir method to route the runoff over land and the modified Puls method to route the runoff in the stream have been applied for hydrological modeling of the Malaprabha catchment in Karnataka. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has been applied to derive the catchment characteristics like shape, size, slope and land use pattern.
The report is the first of a two-part study on water availability for the Ken river system and attempts to evaluate the direct surface runoff in the smaller basins, where gauging sites are not available. In this study on water availability in Ken river basin, rainfall-runoff modeling in the Sonar, Bearma and Bebas river basins, which are the sub-basins of the Ken river system, have been carried out using the Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS-CN) model.
This is a widely used hydrological model for calculating the runoff using rainfall and Curve Number (CN). The SCS-CN is a quantitative descriptor of the land use, land cover and soil complex characteristics of a watershed. The CN is an index that represents the watershed runoff potential.
In this study, a Hydrologic Simulation Model (HYSIM) is applied to the Rushikuliya river basin in Orissa to model the daily flows of the river at Purushottampur. The model used in the study is a menu-driven PC based version and contains modes both for optimization and production runs.
In this study, the modified version of the Soil Conservation Services-Curve Number (SCS-CN) by Mishra and Singh (1998a) was employed to the data of 14 watersheds falling in the arid (Rajasthan) and 2 watersheds in the sub-humid (Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh) regions of India and the results were compared with those of the existing SCS-CN method. The modified version is found to perform better than the existing SCS-CN method in all applications to the data of 16 watersheds.
In the study, Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is used to predict runoff volume from the Bewas basin at a dam site meant to augment municipal drinking water supply to Sagar city. The SCS-CN model involves relationship between land use, land cover, hydrologic soil class, and runoff Curve Number of hydrologic soil cover complex, which in turn is a function of soil type, land cover and antecedent moisture condition.
The study attempts to apply the Shuffled Complex Evolution Algorithm (SCE-UA) of Duan et al for the calibration of a Conceptual Rainfall Runoff (CRR) model. CRR modeling lies intermediate between physically based models and black box models.
The study has been conducted to develop a data simulation model and irrigation schedules for the eastern Godavari delta irrigation system, Andhra Pradesh. It aims at analysis of various factors that influence the irrigation operations and development of appropriate mathematical models and associated computer programs.
The study attempts to undertake surface modeling to simulate the water levels in the mouth portion of Vasishta-Godavari by taking the tidal effect during a flood season, by using the Finite Element Surface Water Modeling System (FESMWS) developed by United States Geological Survey (USGS) to model the reach. The objective is to simulate the surface water flow for a flood discharge of 2.35 lakh cusecs, under the effect of diurnal tide at the bay end.
The surface water levels of a river, especially at the mouth are required for planning and managing flood alleviation schemes and river engineering works. In the lower reaches of many rivers, flood plain inundation may result from very high tide or a very high flood or a combination of both. Also the extent of landward intrusion of saline water into a river at mouth varies with the relative strength of freshwater discharge and the co-oscillating tidal flow resulting from the dynamical interaction of the adjacent coastal waters.
The study is aimed at derivation of a spatially Distributed Unit Hydrograph for Temur watershed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based Distributed Unit Hydrograph Approach. The method for Distributed Unit Hydrograph computation allows for spatial non-uniformity of excess rainfall and is based on the time-area method derived using GIS.
In the study, the hydrogeomorphological parameters of Myntdu basin have been estimated from a digitized basin map where basic map data could be retrieved and manipulated quickly and accurately. The estimated geomorphological parameters of the basin covering linear, areal and relief aspects will be helpful in estimating and modeling the flow process in the basin.
The study applies TOPMODEL (Topography Model) to the Malaprabha catchment of Krishna river basin in Karnataka to simulate the daily flows at Khanapur site. The catchment area of Malaprabha up to discharge measuring site Khanapur is 520 sqkm. The model uses topographic index for the formation of runoff through development of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by interpolating the contours in the basin at 300 m grid size.
The report describes the results of the study of arsenic pollution in groundwater in Nadia as well as the hydro-chemical study of the river Hoogly in West Bengal. The alluvial tract along the river Hoogly covering a stretch of around 470 km encompassing eight districts is affected by arsenic pollution of ground water, the source being geogenic.
In the present study, design flood estimation of Morel catchment of Rajasthan state is computed using the Synder approach, regional relationships as proposed by Central Water Commission, Clark's model, Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method and Geomorphological Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) based approach.
The report presents an interactive software that has been developed to not only provide design flood estimates for large as well as small sized catchments but also help the users analyse their historical rainfall-runoff records for calibration and validation of the various techniques for part or whole of the catchment and river reaches.
The report describes a software developed by the National Institute of Hydrology (NIH) for reservoir analysis in view of the importance of reservoir operation problem in the Indian context and the non-availability of generalized software for reservoir analysis.
The study attempts to estimate the recharge to groundwater due to rainfall and irrigation using tritium tagging techniques in parts of Narsinghpur district under the Narmada catchment in Madhya Pradesh. The estimation of recharge to groundwater is crucial to better water resources management, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.
The study was conducted with the objective of establishing the relationship between spectral reflectance of rice canopy and crop growth. Significant relationship was developed between spectral indices and growth period. The coefficient of correlation between crop growth period and spectral reflectance ranged from 0.41 to 0.97 for the plant growth stages and canopy reflectance in single band and ratio spectra.
The study presents detailed investigations of the chemical quality of groundwater in Jammu and Kathua districts (J & K), carried out to evaluate the suitability of water for various uses. The quality of groundwater of the area has been studied based on the physico-chemical analysis of thirty seven water samples collected from open wells between June and December, 1996.
Various parameters like pH, conductance, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been determined for all the samples and compared with the standards to evaluate its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes.
Irrigation water quality has been computed on the basis of Doneen’s Permeability Index and residual Sodium Carbonate. The higher values of some parameters at certain locations indicate the contamination in groundwater and make the water unsuitable for specific applications.
The study attempts to carry out field testing of the weighing raingauge for measurement of rainfall, which is at the core of all hydrological measurements. The tipping bucket rain gauges are generally used for automated recording of rainfall data. It has been reported that the tipping bucket mechanism of such raingauges frequently malfunctions and gives erroneous data, especially during high intensity rainstorms.
The Systems Hydrologique European – European Hydrological System (SHE) is a physically based distributed model and it provides a useful setup for understanding the importance of evaporation data and soil parameters.
In this study, single column hydrologic simulations have been carried out for examining the sensitivity of this model to pan evaporation data of the various stations as well as the increase in conductivity of the unsaturated zone. Furthermore, the reduction in the value of exponent appearing in the Averjanov’s formula and reduction in the values of moisture content at wilting point and residual water content has been studied for a single grid of 2 km X 2 km size of the Narmada river.
In this study, unsteady flow towards a fully penetrating well screened in both the aquifers of a two-aquifer system separated by an aquitard has been analyzed using numerical approach. Existence of multi-aquifer systems is common in a sedimentary basin.
This report presents the various methodologies for correct assessment of irrigation return flow, which is one of the most significant components in the water balance of irrigation command areas. A part of the water applied to the irrigation fields percolates deep to recharge the groundwater and is known as irrigation return flow. In this report methodologies have been presented for assessment of irrigation return flow through soil moisture modeling, water balance approach, experimental determination and groundwater modeling.
The study attempts to explain flood wave propagation in natural and artificial channels within the perspective of site-specific rating curve. The study looks at the impacts of channel characteristics – bed slope, flood plains, channel shape, expansion-contraction combination, inactive storage, Manning’s roughness, expansion and contraction on flood wave propagation.
The study looks at the various processes and mechanisms of wind erosion as well as the factors that contribute to the increase or decrease of wind erosion in desert areas in the particular context of the Great Indian Desert. The method of estimation of soil loss in a desert area due to wind as suggested by Woodruff and Siddoway on the lines of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is explained.
The report develops rainfall-runoff modeling for simulating and forecasting the flow from a catchment, and in determining the inflow series for the ungauged catchments on the basis of records of gauged catchments.
Because of the scarcity of data, mostly lumped models have been used to model the rainfall-runoff process in a catchment. However distributed models are more accurate and need to be adopted for modeling the complex processes at the scale of basins.
The study attempts to develop a mathematical model for transport of a solute in groundwater by taking the mass balance of the dissolved pollutant over a static elementary volume in three cartesian coordinates.
The management of groundwater resources is becoming a complicated task due to the overwhelming pressure on groundwater and the changing scenario of groundwater quality (physical, chemical and biological).
The hydraulics of groundwater is governed by many bounded and un-bounded factors. The mixing of constituents in groundwater is an important factor that shapes the occurrence of constituents in any precise location at any given time.
The study presents automated mapping of snow cover using a new spectral channel of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS-IC) data for the Spiti sub-basin of the Satluj river basin. Snow is an important phase of the hydrological cycle and the estimation of snowmelt runoff in the Himalayan rivers, either seasonal or daily, is of immense use in proper management and use of water resources in the basins.
The report presents a methodology to assess the probability distribution of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) based on the Streeter-Phelp’s equation. The methodology involves the use of first order analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the uncertainty associated with DO. The mean and standard deviation of the parameters have been assumed as same for the study’s probability distributions.
The study develops the wavelet element method for hydrological application purposes in general and modeling of flow in a canal due to breach of bank in particular. Due to high seasonal variability of rainfall and cyclones in coastal India, flood discharges cause frequent breaching of canals.
Canal breach modeling is of great significance in open channel hydraulics. The study of breach of a canal is a relatively new one as compared to dam breach, which is a well researched field. The analysis of the problem is complicated due to dynamics of flow within the canal. The limitations of the above model due to the one-dimensional model analysis of the problem is hoped to be overcome in two or three dimensional analysis.
In the study, a drain spacing formula has been derived rigorously considering the variation in radial flux and the area above drain level in the radial flow zone. Hooghoudt’s drain spacing formula is based on an implied assumption that in the radial flow zone there is no spatial variation in the flux and hence no vertical recharge in this zone. The Hooghoudt’s formula computes maximum water table height very close to that computed by the rigorous method.
The study applies a hydraulic simulation model, Hydrologic Engineering Centre (HEC-1) to Baitarni river for modeling hourly flows of the river at Anandapur gauging site. HEC-1 model had been developed by US Army Corps of Engineers, for rainfall-runoff modeling. It provides a powerful automatic optimization technique for estimation of some of the parameters. The optimization technique of the model has been utilized in the present study and model parameters have been calibrated and validated for the study area.
The study computes degree-day factor for snow and ice over the Dokriani glacier (4000 m altitude) in Garhwal Himalayas. The effect of natural dusting on degree-day factor is also examined. Information on the degree-day factor for snow and ice is required for the estimation of snow and ice melt runoff from a glacierized basin.
The report presents a detailed review of mathematical modeling of flows in alluvial streams. Various computer codes for this are presented and a model for simple-island case is prepared. Branched flows in open channels with alluvial conditions occur in natural and man-made systems. Analysis of such flows by mathematical modeling is important considering its applications in water resources and environmental engineering.
The report describes the software, which has been developed for flood control regulation of a system of reservoirs. The reservoirs can be gated or ungated, and the system can have any combination including weirs and diversions. For operation of reservoirs, the scenario has been divided into two categories depending on the reservoir level and inflows - normal operation and emergency operation.
The input data requirements of the software are modest. This software along with previously developed software for conservation operation would provide a complete set of tools to analyze any system configuration for the range of purposes for which reservoirs are commonly built in India.
The report deals with the procedures to estimate dispersion coefficient from exit concentration observed due to a step change in the concentration input. A simple method as well as an optimization method has been evolved and the application of the methods on published datasets discussed.
Dispersion occurs in many problems of groundwater flow, such as pollution from concentrated and distributed source, sea water intrusion, seepage of polluted surface water through rivers or lakes and changes in water quality due to artificial recharge. Application of the solution of advection-dispersion equation in soil media for prediction and forecasting of solute concentrations requires the estimate of coefficient of hydrodynamic dispersion, commonly known as ‘dispersion coefficient’.
In the study saltwater intrusion processes in a hypothetical homogenous and multi-layered coastal aquifer system are simulated using the United States Geological Survey (USGS) finite element model for saturated-unsaturated fluid density-dependent groundwater flow with energy transport of chemically reactive single species solute transport (SUTRA) for different boundary conditions and aquifer parameters.
The saltwater intrusion profiles for steady-state or transient conditions are obtained and analyzed. The effects of changes in the permeabilities of aquifers and aquitards, changes in the influx at the boundary, and changes in dispersivities in medium on the saltwater intrusion process are investigated.
The report summarizes aspects of the theory of anisotropic flow in porous media and reviews the methodology for computing hydraulic potentials in an unconfined aquifer system. An algorithm has been devised by applying appropriate transformation techniques for anisotropic domain.
Numerical experiments have been performed using the algorithm to compute hydraulic potentials in certain hypothetical anisotropic aquifer systems. A number of cases have been studied with different coefficients of anisotropy for the aquifer as well as the angle inclination of the bedding planes of the soil strata. The simulated hydraulic potentials in the anisotropic domain are established as equipotential lines in vertical sections.
The report uses the Soil Conservation Services (SCS, 1956), Curve Number (SCS-CN) method, a widely used event based rainfall-runoff method for simulating daily rainfall-runoff data of three catchments, viz., Ramganga and Hemavathi catchments of the sub-humid regions and Sabarmati catchment of the arid region of India.
In the model formulation, the daily variation of parameter, potential maximum retention is governed by the known antecedent moisture condition. Hydrologic simulation studies provide a useful and important input to water resources planning and watershed management practices.
The report discusses the water availability computations under different data availability scenarios. Water availability generally refers to the volume of water available from the basin or stream at a particular point over a specified period of time. Volumetric relationship is reflected between rainfall and runoff. Many factors like climatic and basin characteristics affect the water availability of a basin. Time and space distribution of rainfall, its intensity and duration, surface vegetation, soil moisture, soil characteristics, topography and drainage network are some of the important factors.
In this study, a two-dimensional numerical model for subsurface flow has been developed for the analysis of unsteady flow for subsurface drains. The governing equation is the two-dimensional Richard’s equation in the mixed form. A strongly implicit finite-difference scheme has been used to solve the governing equation.
The model has been validated using the available analytical results of the one side drains. Validation of the model indicates good agreement between the results. It has been used to simulate a hypothetical case of subsurface drains with parallel drains. The present numerical model can be used to simulate the unsteady subsurface drainage problem having a side drain and parallel drains at both sides.
The study attempts to apply Geomorphological Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based approach for flood estimation. The design storm data of four catchments along with morphological characteristics have been considered. The geomorphological parameters and time area diagrams for each of the dam catchments were generated using the GIS package, Integrated Land and Water Information Systems (ILWIS).
The geomorphological parameters together with the time-area diagram forms an important input for the GIUH based Clark model. This model has been applied for deriving the instantaneous unit hydrograph and thereby to estimate the design flood in four dam catchments located in Luni and Chambal basins in Rajasthan viz. Jawai, Sei, Gamabhiri and Alnia. A review of the previous studies carried out using GIUH approach has been presented. Furthermore, a review of studies carried out using GIS techniques is also provided.
The status report reviews some of the important applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in surface water hydrology, highlighting their advantages and limitations. The review also covers the basic aspects of ANNs, various ANN architectures and learning algorithms.
The report discusses the status and progress of studies of various hydrological problems associated with mountainous areas experiencing rain and snow. The principal issues related to mountain hydrology on the local and regional scales are discussed and highlighted.
The status of the hydrological studies carried out in the mountainous basins indicates a poor understanding of basic hydrological variables like precipitation, temperature and evaporation. The non-availability of long duration hydrometeorological data for higher altitude areas is responsible for this.
The study presents a status report on hydrological problems of hard rock areas related to hydrological network design, groundwater quality, failure of open and borewells, regional flood formulae, groundwater balance studies, reservoir sedimentation, hydrological aspects of droughts, forest hydrology and drainage problems of black soil of the hard rock terrain.
The study reviews the present status of urbanization in the developed and developing countries and assesses the changes in urban hydrological cycle owing to this. The softwares used for studying urbanization and sanitation issues in the urban areas have been reviewed.
The report tries to review the hydrological studies done in the northeastern region of India by all agencies, governmental or non-governmental. Sufficient care has been taken to include all the salient features of the studies to make it comprehensive. The various information included in this report are the purpose and year of study, location and extent of the study area with its brief description, data used, list of specific studies along with its results and recommendations wherever possible.
An attempt has been made to pull together all the studies related to hydrology and its allied field. Besides these planned studies done by various departments, research studies done by academic institutions and research and development organizations has also been included.
The hydrological inventory of Ganga basin provides information regarding availability of hydrological data and highlights major hydrological problems of the basins. The information is a useful input in water resources planning, management and research activities.
The study endeavors to test the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) in an urban area. The report presents the technical summary of the model, its structure, interaction between the various blocks of SWMM, the input requirements and the output. The Windows implementation of the blocks, including descriptions of the screen sequences, corresponding blocks, changes made for ease of use and limitations of the implementation are presented. The minimum hardware requirements and installation information for the Windows SWMM are discussed.
The study estimates the average contribution of snow and glacier melt runoff in the annual flow of Satluj river at Bhakra dam. This study is restricted to the Indian part of Satluj basin. A water balance approach was used to determine the average snow and glacier contribution to the annual flows.
The study undertakes hydrological investigations to develop a conceptual model for the water balance of Lake Nainital in Kumaon Himalayas. All the components of lake water balance, except the sub-surface ones, have been measured or estimated using standard methods like isotope mass balance method in conjunction with the conventional water balance method. The sub surface outflow from the lake was assessed by studying the hydraulic interconnection of the lake and downstream springs using environmental tracers.
The study deals with flood estimation through computation of a flood hydrograph for the ungauged Narmada catchment upto Jamtara using the physical and geo-morphological characteristics of the catchment. The catchment area of 17100 sqkm has been sub-divided into five sub-catchments for the purpose of flood estimation.
The study attempts to do field and laboratory determination of soil classification properties in the Dudhnai river basin of Assam and Meghalaya. Point infiltration tests using double ring infiltrometer were conducted at various locations (forty-four sites) in respect of different land use conditions. Soil samples were collected from these infiltration testing sites.
The saturated hydraulic conductivity was determined in the field using Guelph Permeameter for the selected sites. The undisturbed soil samples and disturbed soil samples (50 cm below the ground) were collected and subjected to elaborate laboratory tests.
The study was taken up as a part of the representative basin studies being done by NIH and involved hydrological land use & land cover mapping for the Suddagedda basin of Andhra Pradesh. Mapping was carried out through visual interpretation for the years December 1987, April 1989, December 1992 and November 1996 using IRS IB-LISS II, LANDSAT 5-TM and IRS IC-LISS III data.
Land use and land cover are the most important surface characteristics of a basin. They are very dynamic features over space and time and it is difficult to get real time information on them through conventional means. Planners need to update knowledge of natural resources, which can be obtained quickly, economically and accurately through remote sensing techniques. Further, the land use map of a basin or region provides hydrologically significant categories, which are essential for estimation of reliable runoff from ungauged basins.
The study attempts to find out the effects of geomorphology on watershed runoff response in the Devak basin and tries to identify the parameters that are more closely related to runoff. A chief objective of the study is to regionalize the hydrologic models describing the rainfall-runoff process.
The advanced knowledge of geomorphology of the region is of importance in the field of flood control measures and engineering projects, since geomorphological characteristics of river basins in mountainous areas affect runoff processes and formation of floods in the areas.
The study undertakes hydrological soil classification of Suddagedda basin of Andhra Pradesh based on field and laboratory experiments on the soil samples. The hydrologic soil properties of an area are essential to accurately estimate the runoff generated due to storm in the area. The main soil parameters generally considered for analysis are soil texture, soil structure, infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity.
The study develops a regional conceptual catchment water balance model for five catchments in the Western Ghat region of Karnataka. The model can be used to estimate the water yield from ungauged catchments located in the region.
The water yield is an integration of discharge as a function of time for a specified duration and reflects the volumetric relationship between rainfall and runoff. The estimation of water yield is required for solution of water resources problems normally encountered in design of storage facilities. It is of use in understanding the water availability for agriculture, industrial and drinking purpose as also for estimating the dependable water supply for power generation and irrigation projects.
The study uses HEC-RAS to analyse the water surface profiles of Malaprabha river system upto Khanapur for different combinations of discharges through various reaches of the river system. The river system is divided into eleven reaches, and forty one cross sections have been measured and interpolated within these reaches.
Discharge values have been assigned for different reaches according to the ratio of contributing area for each reach. The bridge across the river at Khanapur is reproduced in the modeling system to test its capabilities. Various return period floods have been allowed to pass through the river system to compute the individual water surface profiles.
The study attempts to quantify geomorphological characteristics, generate various thematic databases in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format and derive landuse information using remote sensing digital data for the Danda watershed in the Tehri-Garhwal district of Uttarakhand. Based on these it develops a land capability classification and generates alternate land use plan.
An integrated approach is followed wherein remote sensing and Geographical Information systems (GIS) techniques have been utilized for evaluation of the catchment characteristics such as geomorphology, landuse, soil and slope. The linking of the geomorphological parameters with the hydrological characteristics of the basin provides a simple way to understand the hydrologic behavior of the basin.
The study evaluates groundwater on the basis of widely used graphical methods like Piper, Stiff and US Salinity Laboratory classification. The study concludes that, in general, the groundwater in the area varies from medium salinity to very high salinity, the latter being more common in the irrigated stretches. The irrigators are advised to ensure good land and water management practices in the fields, with particular emphasis on creating favorable leaching and drainage conditions to avoid further development of saline conditions in the area.
The study develops a relationship between suspended sediment load and discharge for three basins - Kasol, Suni and Lower Satluj. The sediment load (tonnes/ year) and sediment yield (tonnes/ sqkm/ year) in suspension and as bed load of sand & gravel through the river channel, reflects upland erosion in the drainage basin and deposition of sediments in the alluvial bottomlands. A good deal of the sediment eroded from upland areas is deposited on lower hills slopes, in bottomlands, lakes and reservoirs.
The study aims to establish relationship between spectral reflectance of rice canopy, crop growth, chlorophyll concentrations and water use. Two fields were chosen for radiometric and agronomic measurements over the period from flowering to maturity (August to November).
The study applies geostatistical techniques to the groundwater quality data of December 1994 in parts of Jammu district. Groundwater quality deterioration has led to considerable interest in the design of investigative studies and monitoring programs on the issue.
Various management measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal behavior of groundwater. The spatial dependence between observations can be expressed by semi variance, which is a measure of the average similarity between observations at a given distance apart. One of the prime reasons for obtaining a semivariogram is to use it for estimation of the variable at unsampled locations.
The study assesses sedimentation rate, water spread area and volume of the Bhakra reservoir in Satluj basin using remote sensing data of IRS-1B satellite and LISS-II sensor data of the years 1988-89 and 1996-97. The original elevation-area capacity curves and the reservoir levels on the eight dates of pass of the satellite were obtained from the Bhakra Beas Management Board, Nangal.
Using the trapezoidal formula, the capacity in between the maximum (513.904 m) and minimum (450.436 m) observed levels was assessed for the year 1996-97. The loss of capacity till 1988-89 was 491.315 mcum and till 1996-97 was 807.354 mcum. These could be attributed to the sediment deposition in the zone of study of reservoir.
The study develops a water balance of a sub-basin, Pachaiar, of the Tambarapani river basin in Tamil Nadu. The various components of water balance have been estimated by using the process generating module of Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins (SWRRB), a model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
The performance of the USDA model has been validated internationally by various researchers. Since the model required continuous weather data, a time series of it has been generated using another model. The efficiency of this model has been checked with a meteorological station outside the basin.
The study develops a precipitation network design for the Myntdu-Leska basin, which lies near Cherrapunji, the zone of highest rainfall in the world. Network design offers an estimation of the number and location of the rain gauge stations to provide adequate information regarding rainfall falling over the catchment.
A detailed survey of the river Hindon was carried out to understand the nature of waste effluents and their impact on water quality. As per the study, the river water is subject to varying degrees of pollution, caused by numerous untreated waste outfalls of municipal and industrial effluents.
The main sources, which create pollution in the river, include municipal wastes of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad districts received through tributaries as well as direct outfalls. In the non-monsoon months, the river is completely dry, right from its origin upto Saharanpur town. The effluents of Nagdev nala and Star Paper Mill at Saharanpur generate the flow of water in the river.
The study assesses the quantum of seepage to the aquifers through percolation ponds and establishes their zone of influence, and based on these, correlates the quantum of seepage to the total storage loss in the pond. The assessment of the benefits of the ponds, in terms of artificial recharge to the aquifers is done through an intensive study of two percolation ponds in Tamil Nadu.
A percolation pond is a small water harvesting structure, constructed across a natural stream or water course to harvest and impound the runoff from the catchments for a longer time, to facilitate vertical and lateral percolation of impounded water into the soil substrata, thereby recharging groundwater storage in the zone of influence of the pond.
The study presents a preliminary hydrological investigation of the Deepar Beel, a natural freshwater lake near Guwahati, and notes the theoretical aspects of the techniques to be used, methodologies and instruments for conducting a detailed study of the natural processes at hand.
Deepar Beel acts as a natural stormwater reservoir during monsoon period and is greatly influenced by the rapid urbanization and improper land use pattern of Guwahati. It receives a large portion of sewage of the city, but the preliminary investigations reveal that the Beel is largely free from significant levels of pollution. This is due to the dilution effects of large storm water runoff during monsoons as also the release of the Beel water to river Brahmaputra through the Khanajun outlet. Yet, the soil quality is found to have deteriorated to a large extent.
Various parameters of soil and water quality indicate that the process of eutrophication is in progress in this wetland. Although many trace elements are present in the Beel sediments, no known toxic effects are observed on aquatic life. Increasing sedimentation and reduction in lake water capacity and inflow are also observed.
The study undertakes an exhaustive survey of the morphometric features of the Mansar lake, Udhampur district to prepare a bathymetric map of the lake. The map is useful in understanding the lake hydrological behavior through a study of volume, sedimentation rate and identification of the high siltation zone. The study is significant as the lake water can be utilized for drinking and irrigation purposes for the water scarce Kandi belt of Jammu.
The study prepares a landuse and landcover map of Devak catchment of Ujh river basin in Jammu for the years 1958, 1979, 1990 and 1998 using image processing and visual interpretation techniques. It involves analysis of IRS-1A L2B2 (FCC) data for the year 1990, IRS -1C LISS III (digital data) for the year 1998 and SoI topographic maps for the year 1958 and 1979.
The study applies a simple five-parameter model based on the concept of probability distributed method as proposed by Moore (1985) to simulate the daily runoff over a nine-year period of 1989-1997 at Tamavaram in Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh on the Gundlakamma river.
The study suggests a procedure based on the methodology of Gustard et al (1992) for estimation of baseflow index (BFI) using the mean daily discharge data over a period of 4 to 6 years for three rivers between the Mahanadi and Godavari deltas. The rivers from the Zone 4 (A) are Rushikuliya at Purushottampur in Orissa, Nagavalli at Narayanpuram wier and Sarada at Anakapalli in Andhra Pradesh.
The study presents the spatial analysis of groundwater levels and its quality for the year 1998 for Kakinada town in coastal Andhra Pradesh. The Deltaic Regional Centre of NIH has been monitoring groundwater levels and its quality in and around Kakinada town since 1994. Groundwater samples have been analyzed for physical and chemical parameters. The variation in each parameter is discussed in the report.
A total of 164 samples were collected from 41 observation wells during the months of February, May, August and November 1998. The area covered by these observation wells is around 82 sqkms. The groundwater table contours were plotted for pre-monsoon (May 98) and post monsoon (November 98) periods and the approximate flow direction had been demarcated.
The study defines the climatic regions in terms of readily available climatic parameters like ratio of mean annual precipitation to global terrestrial mean annual precipitation and ratio of mean annual potential evapotranspiration to mean annual precipitation (Ep/ Pa).
The study focuses on the drought characteristics of the sub-humid climatic regions across different parts of the country. It establishes that the drought frequency and intensity have a significant relationship with the above regional climatic parameters. Average drought frequency (yr) is seen to increase gradually from dry to wet regions, from 4 years in the regions with Ep/ Pa ≥ 2 to above 8 years in the regions with Ep/Pa ≤ 1.
The study attempts to advance the understanding of regional drought phenomenon in the Kalahandi district of Orissa and present mitigation strategies. The dry spells during the monsoon crop growing season and wide variations in the quantum of rainfall from year to year result in frequent failure of crops in Kalahandi and as a result the district is categorised as drought prone.
The study applies the methodology developed by United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA), Soil Conservation Services (SCS) for the nine subwatersheds of the representative Dudhnai basin in Assam & Meghalaya and estimates the runoff volume on a daily basis for the period 1986-1991. The method is widely adopted for the estimation of runoff from rainfall depths and takes into account the important physical aspects of a basin on which runoff depends such as land-use, hydrological soil cover and antecedent moisture condition.
The study attempts to determine the water quality of all available sources of water be it surface, ground or waste water and find out the likely sources of pollution for the Hardwar district of Uttar Pradesh. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were determined. The effect of monsoon on the water quality was studied by collecting and analyzing the pre and post monsoon samples.
The study attempts to determine the adsorption characteristics of bed sediments of rivers for the control of metal pollution. In particular, it looks at adsorption of zinc ions on bed sediments for the river Ganga at Hardwar. In the natural conditions of river water, suspended loads and sediments have an important function of buffering higher metal concentrations of water, particularly by adsorption or precipitation.
The study on groundwater quality of Greater Guwahati analyses various trace elements in samples and ascertains that their concentration is much higher than the tolerance limit prescribed for drinking water. The trace element analysis focuses on metals such as Cu, Co, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb.
Owing to the inadequacies of piped water supply, the Greater Guwahati area depends on groundwater from ringwells and tubewells for drinking purposes. Groundwater is mostly polluted from the effluents discharged by industries on land, seepage from sewage lines & tanks and application of pesticides on agricultural land. Due to the low flow velocity, groundwater once contaminated will remain so for longer periods. Metals assume significance because of their greater toxicity, accumulative and non-biodegradable behavior.
The study attempts to find out the pollution potential in the Hindon river, a polluted river in western Uttar Pradesh. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of pesticides was done using gas chromatography. Among various organic, inorganic and biological water pollutants, pesticides are very dangerous and harmful because of their carcinogenic properties. Pesticides are bio-accumulative and relatively stable and therefore require close monitoring.
The hydrological study develops a water balance of the Lake Nainital to facilitate the utilization of its water in a planned and systematic manner. The lack of knowledge of input and output parameters such as subsurface inflow, use of lake water for domestic and industrial purposes, evaporation loss and leakage from lake including the outflow through sluice gates had created uncertainty in determining the availability of water in the lake. The study attempts to understand the behavior of the input and output parameters in detail by using both conventional and isotopic techniques.
The lake meets the local drinking and domestic water needs and is for the most part fed by rainfall during monsoon and by inflow from perennial springs and subsurface inflow during the non-monsoon season.
The study seeks to understand the problem of rainfall, particularly for identification of any trend or persistence in the rainfall series in the five districts of Sagar division of Madhya Pradesh. A statistical analysis of the rainfall pattern is conducted using World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommended statistical techniques for climatological analysis. Besides studying the statistical parameters and cross correlation, other techniques like linear regression and polynomial regression have been applied to identify the presence of any trend.
The study attempts to do a field and laboratory determination of soil moisture characteristics such as particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture retention curve in a part of the Hindon river catchment and studies the variation of these along the river in its upstream reach.
The study attempts to develop a computerized model for Geomorphological Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) for estimation of flood hydrographs resulting from intermittent storms of varying intensity. The model applied to the rainfall-runoff data of the Myntdu-Leska basin of Meghalaya infers that the channel network and geomorphological features are closely related to the retention and discharge characteristics of the basin.
The theory of GIUH assumes that rainfall that occurs over a basin is assumed to be composed of infinite number of non-interacting drops of uniform size. After spending some time in one state in the channel or overland region, the drop makes transitions to another state to reach the basin outlet. Assuming one parameter, exponential time distribution of one drop chosen at random from the basin defines the IUH of the basin.
The study gives a systematic methodology to determine field hydraulic conductivity using Guelph Permeameter (GP), its limitation based on the experiences gained in the field and a comparison of its results with that estimated from the predictive method for the soils in Central Bihar. Predictive methods applying empirical formulae are used to ascertain hydraulic conductivity from easily determined factors like bulk density, porosity and water content.
Physically based hydrological models, soil water balance, groundwater flow and transport models require values of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity to solve the sub-surface flow and transport equations. Several field, laboratory and predictive methods are available for determination of this parameter. However, these methods have some advantages and some limitations. GP is used as a tool to determine the field hydraulic conductivity even when the water table is low. It is portable, durable and allows rapid field calculation of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.
The study estimates the average soil loss using the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tool of Integrated Land and Water Information Systems (ILWIS) and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) methodology for the Hire nadi catchment, in Yelbarga taluk, Koppal district of Karnataka, under different conditions.
Scientific planning for soil conservation and water management requires knowledge of the relations among factors that cause and prevent soil and water loss. Controlled studies on field plots and small watersheds have supplied vital information regarding these complex factors and their interrelations.
The report presents the status of urban hydrology and highlights some of the hydrological problems related to urbanization in the world and in India. It covers a discussion on urban hydrologic cycle, hydrological and related problems of India, impact of urbanization on streamflow and urban water management. Some information on available urban hydrological models and the recommendations for the management of urban areas is also included.
The problems of urban hydrology have been of world concern for several years, but there have been few compilations of background information and even fewer comprehensive investigations of specific urban situations. The new information and data are of vital importance to the development of urban hydrology research in future.
This report is a compilation of the hydrological news in the print media in the country for the year 2000. The report is an attempt to put forth diverse hydrologic information and events reflecting the problems and indicate solutions for hydrologists, planners and water resource managers in particular. National newspapers like Hindustan Times, Indian Express and Hindu have been referred to, for tracking the Indian hydrological events due to flood, drought, quality, demand supply and availability.
The report details out the status of landfill and waste disposal technologies in India & abroad and reviews the scientific studies undertaken to support its design for long-lasting performance. Hydrological considerations play a major role in the selection of landfill sites and in the design and performance of landfills for hazardous waste management. A landfill is a form of a biochemical reactor where the municipal solid waste (MSW) comes into contact with moisture, a catalyst, and gets decomposed into solid waste, gases and liquid contaminants (leachate) resulting in the release of heat. The design of the control and recovery systems requires the estimation of amount and composition of gas and leachate accurately, as also the changes in these with time. Lysimeters are used to simulate the landfill performance.
The report presents a review of several aspects of non-point source of pollution, like extent and effects of pollution in surface and groundwater bodies, pollution control, monitoring, modeling and management options. Non-point source pollution originates from diffuse land areas that contribute pollutants to surface and groundwater bodies. Sediments, nutrients and pesticides are transported from croplands either in a dissolved form in runoff or through adsorption onto eroded soil particles. Apart from this it can also enter groundwater through leaching.
The report presents a literature review on the status of research related to saltwater intrusion and groundwater management in coastal and deltaic environments in the east coast of South India. The area is typically characterized by highly productive and alluvial aquifers and high use of both surface as well as groundwater. Seawater intrusion into the freshwater aquifers is extensive due to increased pumpages.
A quantitative understanding of the patterns of movement and mixing between freshwater and saline water and the factors that influence these processes is stressed in the report. It presents the mechanics of saltwater intrusion through studies by Ghyben and Herzberg and later on by Hubbert. A comprehensive review of studies by Reilly and Goodman relating to saltwater intrusion is discussed. Later advances in understanding saltwater-freshwater relationship through numerical models like sharp interface model and miscible flow model are described.
The study assesses waterlogging in a canal command area in Rohtak and Jhajjhar districts through waterlogging area zonation using multi-spectral and multi-temporal imagery like IRS LISS III data of pre and post monsoon period. Seasonal and permanent waterlogged area and standing water were delineated on the basis of remote sensing data, digital elevation model and groundwater data.
The study develops regional flood frequency relationship and flood formulae based on recently developed efficient techniques of flood frequency analysis to estimate floods of desired return periods for small to moderate size gauged and ungauged catchments of the middle Ganga plains (sub-zone 1F) encompassing parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. A regional flood formula has been developed by coupling the L-moment based regional flood frequency relationship with the regional relationship between mean annual peak flood and the catchment area.
The study assesses the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation use and examines the likely impact of Yamuna river water quality on groundwater. Delhi is faced with severe problems associated with groundwater quality and quantity. The quality varies spatially and seasonally, with depth and is primarily governed by the extent and composition of dissolved solids present in it. Surface water bodies play a role and the hydraulic gradient determines the lateral and vertical migration in the groundwater flow system.
Groundwater samples were collected through extensive field surveys covering entire Delhi area representing various geo-hydrological and land-use conditions. The data has been analysed with respect to BIS and WHO standards to examine its suitability for various uses. The area has a peculiar feature of infiltration of surface water to groundwater from river Yamuna and from various drains.
The study estimates the snow cover area for four major basins in the Himalayan region viz. Chenab up to Akhnoor, Ganga up to Devprayag, Satluj up to Bhakra and Beas up to Pandoh using IRS - IC and ID WiFS data. Snow cover estimation was done for the years 1997-2000 using image processing system ERDAS Imagine. The maximum and minimum snow cover extent for the month of September-October and March-April were delineated and on the basis of these the depletion curves for each basin was made for the four years. This output is useful for carrying out snowmelt runoff modeling.
The hydrological study for the experimental representative basins, Ghataprabha and Malaprabha, of the Krishna river basin attempts to standardize and develop methodologies for providing solutions for understanding and solving various hydrological problems of the hard rock regions of India.
Representative basins are basins, which are selected as representative of a hydrological region within which hydrological similarity is presumed and can be used for intensive investigation of specific problems of the hydrological cycle. This can then take a wide-ranging role representing a broad area to which the data can be transferred.
The research attempts to demonstrate the potential of remote sensing in base mapping and change detection in urban land-use in Delhi, with the aim of understanding the urban hydrology. The study uses IRS LISS III sensor and ERDAS Imagine image processing system to establish the potential of remote sensing techniques in obtaining synoptic and repetitive coverage of the city to monitor the patterns of urban growth and urban fringe activity.
The study estimates the initial abstraction coefficient for six watersheds in various agro-climatic zones of Karnataka from rainfall-runoff events by asymptomatic fitting of Curve Numbers calculated from observed rainfall-runoff data using Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The SCS method assumes the initial rainfall abstraction as the fraction of potential maximum retention of soil.
The study aims to determine the climatological water balance of Krishnai river basin in Goalpura, Assam using the popular Thornthwaite’s concept of Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) to calculate the availability of water for various uses. The method offers a firm basis for appraising the problems related to water development projects in the planning stage and provides a sound footing for operating and managing the system.
The study applies advanced models of design storm like Flood Analysis and Protection Systems (FLAPS) and HEC-1 for rainfall-runoff simulation employing selected short-term events of three basins of the north-eastern region – Myntdu-Leska (Meghalaya), Krishnai and Dudhnai (Assam). The results are used to study the sensitivity of the model parameters with respect to different hydrological parameters of the basin. The performance of these methods is evaluated by analyzing the isolated events. An attempt has been made to evaluate the non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response, using a simple storage-runoff dynamic model. The relationship of incipient soil moisture and transmissivity with direct runoff and recharge is studied.
The study estimates geomorphological parameters and soil loss using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques for the Juni nadi watershed in Jammu Siwaliks with the idea of helping planners develop soil conservation strategies. Geomorphological characteristics of a river basin shape runoff processes and the occurrence of floods especially in the mountainous areas. In ungauged catchments with limited data, such as Juni nadi watershed, these parameters can be useful in understanding the hydrological characteristics. Reliable estimates of soil loss too can be useful in formulating watershed strategies to reduce soil loss to acceptable levels.
The study uses remote sensing data to develop a land use classification and applies statistical methods appropriate for Indian catchments to estimate the annual sediment load from the Upper Indravati catchment in Orissa for the year 2000. The study points to the fact that assessment of reservoir catchment regions at regular intervals would enhance the understanding of the geodynamic processes and help in identifying effective control measures.
The study models the variations in water quality parameters of Yamuna river by means of stochastic approach using Central Water Commission’s monthly data for the period 1990-95 and makes projections for the year 1996. The results obtained for different water quality variables have been compared with the observed values and were found to be satisfactory.
The study is based on investigations and collection of necessary information on the super cyclone in Orissa in October 1999. It examines cyclonic phenomenon in the country in general and Orissa in particular, and stresses the need for preparing a comprehensive plan for dealing with such disasters.
The study analyses the surface and groundwater quality of Ghataprabha representative basin during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. It looks at the primary impact of land use and cropping pattern on water quality using physico-chemical analysis, geo-chemical classification of groundwater samples and monitoring of groundwater quality.
Streeter-Phelp’s model is applied to understand the variation of dissolved oxygen along the course of the river from a point source. The study attempts to understand the impact of irrigation return-flow and use of pesticides, fertilizers & manures on surface and groundwater quality. The literature review offered indicates a dearth of studies on the subject for hard rock catchments and puts forward the need to do basin-wide as against area-wide studies.
The study discusses the hydrological aspects of rainwater harvesting in the Kandi belt in the foothill zone of Siwalik in Jammu region with the help of a case study on water availability in a pond in village Badhori (Samba district, Jammu). It describes the climate, soils, geology, geomorphology and drainage of the Kandi belt. It is marked with small watersheds having low denuded hills and undulating cultivated lands that need to be developed on a watershed basis through engineering and non-engineering measures of rainwater harvesting and soil conservation.
The study deals with the estimation of hydrological soil properties of the area of Lokapavani River in KR Sagar Command in Mandya district of Karnataka. The properties determined are soil texture, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, specific gravity and soil moisture characteristics.
The disturbed and undisturbed soil samples from eighteen locations along different depths were collected and analyzed. Eighty-five disturbed soil samples were used to determine the grain size distribution, porosity, specific gravity and soil moisture characteristic curves with the help of electromagnetic sieve shaker, master sizer, GeoPyc and pressure plate apparatus. Twenty undisturbed soil samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity with ICW Permeameter.
The study conducts an extensive water quality survey in sixteen reaches of Kali river in western Uttar Pradesh to estimate the inflow of two major nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) from point and non-point sources. The study intends to validate the present model based on the principle of conservation of mass and reaction kinetics phenomenon.
Data was taken for one annual cycle on a monthly basis and criteria developed to compute the non point source load from nine sub-basins in various stretches of the river. The computed loads at each section obtained from the predictive equation have been compared with the values observed in the field. The performance of the developed equation has been evaluated using percentage error estimation and correlation statistics. Remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) have been used to develop correlation between basin characteristics and non-point source loads.